### Q & A: One-Time Pad "OTP"

### What is the Problem and How Does JumPedal Solve it?

For 70 years, the one-time pad has been accepted as the perfect cipher, but unfortunately it has not been scalable across the network, making it unusable.

Digital security systems have been unable to solve OTP’s scalability issues, and have been forced to trade-off security for scalability, leaving them vulnerable to brute force hacking.

JumPedal has solved OTP’s scalability limitations. We are introducing a digital security system that is both secure and scalable. The CipherCoil microchip solves OTP’s scalability problems by transforming a small 128-bit OTP control sequence, or digital seed, into unhackable randomized OTP cipher keys. These keys simultaneously conform to U.S. legal requirements and solve security issues by providing millions of bits of security.

### What are the Fundamentals of Cryptography?

Dr. Claude Shannon, the father of information theory, clarified the fundamentals of cryptography:

- The more random the pattern of a cipher, the more difficult it is for code breakers to decode the message, making it more secure.
- The more random the pattern of a cipher, the more difficult it becomes to share, making it difficult to distribute and less scalable.

These two factors create a trade-off that defines the science of cryptography and the tug-of-war between security and scalability.

### What is Cryptography?

Cryptography is the science and practice of being able to send secret messages.

### How Does Cryptography Work?

Cryptography has traditionally applied patterned mathematical operations to scramble messages. By contrast, OTP applies random mathematical operations to scramble messages.

### What is the History of Cryptography?

Dr. Shannon stated that perfect, unhackable cryptography was the one-time pad, OTP cipher.

Computer scientists soon realized that the OTP had scalability problems and couldn’t be used on digital networks. The Holy Grail of Cryptography quickly became an unrealizable technology.

Understanding the necessity of scalability, every existing digital security system and network has traded-off some degree of security for scalability. Because of this agreement to enter into a trade-off, every digital system is fundamentally hackable by brute force computing.

### What are the Requirements for Producing a Perfect Cryptography Cipher?

Dr. Shannon stated that the perfectly secure cipher that could never be broken in theory or with any amount of computing power is the one-time-pad , “OTP” cipher.

For the OTP cipher to be 100% secure, the cipher must meet five conditions:

- Be truly random
- Be at least as long as the plaintext it is encoding
- Never be reused, not even in part
- Be kept completely secret
- Be known to both the message sender and recipient

### Can You Describe How OTP Produces a Perfect Unhackable Cipher?

If we were trying to transmit the five-letter word “hello” to a friend using a OTP cipher key, the OTP cipher would transpose the letters. Each letter could be transposed to any of the 26 letters of the alphabet,
creating 26 x 26 x 26 x 26 x 26 or almost 12 million unique ways the message could be encoded.

In trying to decode the OTP encoded message, the only piece of information a hacker would know is that the message was five letters long.

The hacker wouldn’t know if the message was hello, later, buzzy, jazzy or any five-letter word, as every one of the 12 million decoding’s would have an equal probability of being the original message. This equal probability or equal likely outcome to be any five-letter word makes the OTP cipher a perfect cipher as it doesn’t provide a hacker sufficient information to accurately determine the original message, “hello”.

Any cipher that has perfect secrecy is not only practically impossible to break by computing application, but is also theoretically impossible to break. Even with unlimited time and unlimited computing power, a hacker would only end up with 12 million possible outcomes, and all of them would have an equal probability of being the message. This equal likely outcome makes the OTP cipher a perfect unhackable cipher.

### What is the Random Sequence Problem?

Many scientists believe that it is impossible to produce the random numbers required to create an OTP cipher on a computer or deterministic logic-driven machine.

### What is Truly Random?

A number is truly random if there is no way of using a sequence of bits to predict the next bit.

### What is the Cipher Key Distribution Problem?

By definition, OTP ciphers need to be the same bit length as the information they are encoding. The transmission of large OTP ciphers across a digital network introduces a susceptibility to hacking that has historically limited their value.

### How Have the Random Sequence and Cipher Key Distribution Problems Limited the Scalability of OTP Technology?

The difficulty of creating the random sequences that define OTP ciphers, coupled with the difficulty of transmitting the ciphers across a digital network, has limited the usability of the OTP cipher.

### What is Cryptography’s Security vs. Scalability Tradeoff?

It is difficult to securely transmit an OTP key, as hackers can electronically capture the key as it is being transferred.

Despite its tremendous security, the implementation of OTP’s ciphers has been historically relegated to the KBG and other spy agencies that passed OTP ciphers on hand delivered paper pads. Hence the name one-time pad.

The difficulty of distributing OTP security in digital networks has led to compromises in the security vs scalability trade-off. Computer scientists have necessarily reduced security to increase scalability, and have introduced RSA, AES and other cipher key solutions.

However, the problem with trade-offs is that any compromise in security is ultimately hackable by improvements to processing speeds and brute force computing.

### Is There a Way to Overcome OTP Scalability Issues?

Yes, with the CipherCoil microchip. The CipherCoil microchip solves OTP’s scalability problems by transforming small easily transmittable OTP control sequences into large OTP ciphers, providing both security and scalability.

### Is There a Test or Series of Tests to Determine Randomness?

The U.S. Government’s National Institute of Standards and Technology, “NIST”, is a regulatory body that develops compliance standards for technology and innovation. Even though it is impossible to produce a test that absolutely determines a state of randomness, NIST has produced a test bench of fifteen evaluations that if collectively passed, indicate a state of non-patterned, non-predictable randomness. Passing these tests is generally recognized as validating a random sequence.

### How Random are the CipherCoil’s OTP Cipher Keys?

JumPedal’s BinaryAcceleration and the mathematical processes employed by the CipherCoil have been independently evaluated for performance by DynAlysis Software Analytics, according to NIST SP800-22 Revision 1a Statistical Test Suite for Randomness.

### Has the CipherCoil Passed the NIST Tests?

Yes, please see the independently run and validated test results by DynAlysis here.

### What Network Systems Do You Employ to Support the CipherCoil’s OTP Processes?

The open-ended scalability of OTP super encryption cipher key security is supported by CipherCorps’ dual network architecture. This architecture separates critical encoding components and their results across multiple networks.

### What is a Dual-Network Architecture?

JumPedal’s CipherCorps network has been engineered on a revolutionary primary and secondary dual track network design.

- CipherCorps’ client systems store unique client keys that offset the creation of OTP ciphers that never leave the client system.
- CipherCorps’ primary network stores only OTP encoded content.
- CipherCorps’ secondary network stores only the unique set of rules that were applied during the CipherCoil’s OTP key creation processes.

Client cipher keys are separated from encoded content, which is separated from the logic that defines how ciphers are applied. This three-part separation, one on the client device, and one on CipherCorps’ primary network, and one on the secondary network, ensures that only the content’s owner and recipient can decode the message.

CipherCorps dual network is monitored by a reporting agency that monitors cross network traffic to ensure that only upload and download synchronization information travels between the networks and never encodable or decodable content.

### How Does CipherCorps Protect Client to Client Communications?

CipherCorps’ dual-network produces two ½ key OTP control sequences for each message. One ½ OTP control sequence is produced on CipherCorps’ primary network and one is produced on CipherCorps’ secondary network. These two ½ control sequences are sent by the two independent networks to the message creator and recipient’s' devices, where CipherCoil transforms them into a OTP cipher for encoding and decoding.

The CipherCoil microchip, and CipherCorps’ dual network ensure that only the message sender and recipient have access to the OTP keys that encode and decode the message. After utilization the OTP keys are destroyed.

### What is the No Secure Computer Problem?

The general consensus is that there is no such thing as a secure computer as most devices access the Internet, and employ a variety of operating systems and dozens of applications that create hackable vulnerabilities.

### How Does JumPedal Solve the No Secure Computer Problem?

CipherCorps applies overlapping protections that secure information once it is input into the network. Future developments will protect client systems from key loggers, AI sensors, and Internet leaks during content creation and utilization cycles.

### Let’s get to the Science

Is the CipherCoil’s generated entropy equivalent to the number of bits being encoded? If it isn’t it will break what is known as the uniform distribution requirement, and therefore will not provide perfect secrecy.

Yes, the inability to produce entropy equivalent to the number of encoded bits breaks the uniform distribution requirement. However, no one can prove the generation of pure entropy, nor the existence of perfect random sequence. Hardware random number generators apply transducers, amplifiers, and analog-to-digital converters, and therefore cannot claim to produce perfectly random sequences. In fact, a perfectly random sequence may exist in theory, but has never been seen or proven in application. This conclusion might be contested, but is difficult if not impossible to disprove.

Since it is impossible to objectively prove or disprove the production of a perfectly random sequence this question has limited relevance, and is ultimately defined by the definition of randomness. A number is truly random if there is no way of using a sequence of bits to predict the next bit.

We are claiming that the CipherCoil produces such a high-grade entropy that there is no way of using a sequence of bits to predict the next bit, or the process of bit production, and therefore the CipherCoil creates a viable, scalable commercial grade OTP cipher.

### Giving the Benefit of the Doubt, How Does the CipherCoil Generate the Randomness Required for OTP Ciphers?

CipherCorps uses National Instruments random number generator to produce control sequences to initiate our OTP processes.

Despite their random origin, we describe these control sequences as being pseudo random, as the process by which they are created is known to us. If the process was not known to us, they would be defined as being random sequences.

Even though these control sequences have a random origin and nature, they will be applied as a constant within the CipherCoil’s cyclical processes.

Starting from this highest possible potential, CipherCoil's quantum derived mathematical processes transform the pseudo random OTP control sequence constant into multi-dimensional digitally supported field potentials. These potentiality fields, floating windows, and supporting randomizing field aggregations have been engineered to increase the entropy that can be extracted from the cyclical rotations of the pseudo random OTP control sequence constant.

These collective processes introduce a fluid demeanor to the otherwise deterministic processes of a computer’s algorithms. This fluid-deterministic approach to random sequence creation produces a high standard in distribution complexity, as we do not employ logarithms, square root, or traditional linear methods.

### What is a High Standard in Distribution Complexity?

The decision ultimately becomes a commercial decision. Do we stay dedication to absolute unachievable standards? Standards that are impossible to obtain by any method, while employing RSA and other security key systems that have traded off security for scalability and are provably hackable by brute force computing power. Or, do we step back one inch from the absolute and apply commercially achievable randomness that is so complex in its fluid-deterministic creation that it will never succumb to brute force hacking by any amount of computing power.

### Never Succumbing to Brute Force Hacking is a Difficult Claim to Substantiate.

This is again something of a commercial decision. Does an individual or company prefer to utilize a digital security system that has compromised security for scalability across the network. Such systems are by their acceptance of this tug of war tradeoff, provably susceptible to brute force computer hacking.

Virtually every existing digital network has made the tradeoff for scalability. The result is exponentially spiraling theft, with hacking projected to cost $10 trillion by 2025.

In contrast, a person could employ JumPedal’s OTP system that is perfect in theory, and close if not absolutely perfect in the millions of bit cipher keys it produces, all with perfect scalability across the network.